Other names sunperch, blue sunfish, copperbelly, copperhead,
coppernose bream, redbreasted sunfish, yellowbelly, bluemouth sunfish, baldface,
plumb granny, pumpkinseed, pond perch
Bluegill are found in many waters of the United States but is far more
abundant in lakes and ponds than is streams and rivers.
The bluegill is a deep, slab-sided sunfish with a small mouth. The
upper jaw does not reach the front of the eye when the mouth is closed. The
spiny dorsal fin has 10 spines and is joined broadly to the soft dorsal fin, but
there is no notch. The pectoral fins are long and pointed and extend past the
eye when they are bent in a forward position. There is usually a black spot or
blotch near the base of the soft dorsal fin and a black flexible tip on the gill
cover. The back and sides are colored dark olive green with emerald and brownish
reflections. The breast and belly are yellow or reddish-orange. Males in
breeding colors often have a deep red, almost dark brown breast. The side
usually display vertical bars, but these are more prominent in smaller fish. The
gill covers and chin are bright blue, giving the bluegill its name.
Bluegills consume zooplankton when young, but switch to aquatic insects after
they are mature. The small-sized mouth of this fish limits the size of food
particles ingested and almost dictates a diet of insects and similar small
organisms. While insects remain the staple food item for adults, crayfish,
snails, small fish, and fish eggs are also consumed. Algae and other vegetation
are eaten when normal food items are scarce. Fish lice, Argulus, have
been identified in bluegill stomach contents, indicating thet these fish may
perform a "cleaning" function on heavily parasitized fish.
Bluegill reproduce over a wide time period, usually from late May to early
August in Iowa, but peak spawning occurs in early June. Water temperatures
during the spawning season are 70 to 80 degrees F. Males construct nests in
water from 1 to 4 feet in depth along the shoreline, over diverse substrate
materials, but sand and gravel are preferred. The nests are saucer-shaped
depressions about 1 to 2 feet in diameter. From the shore, the colony of nests
resembles "elephant tracks". The pugnacious males often build nests, almost
touching adjoining nests. It is quite common to find as many as 50 nests in a
75-foot radius. Most nests are only 2 to 3 inches deep, and the male fish keep
them fanned free of silt.
After nest construction, the ripe male selects a gravid female and entices
her toward the nest with aggressive nudges and bites. Few females lay all their
eggs in one nest, so each nest contains the eggs of several females. The males
zealously guard the nests from all intruders and keep the eggs free from silt.
Sometimes bluegill hybridize with other members of the sunfish family, redear,
green sunfish and pumpkinseed. Males make grunting noises during spawning and
may be attracted to spawning areas by odor. Finer substrates produce the most
fry per nest with an average of about 64,000 on sand and fine gravel.
Growth of bluegill varies widely with population density. High population
density retards growth while the opposite occurs with low density. Bluegill will
reach 1 to 2 inches in length on the average in their first year of life. Most
bluegill in Iowa attain lengths of 3.5, 4.5, and 6 inches in their second,
third, and fourth year of life. Bluegills mature during the second year under
suitable conditions, but slower growth will delay maturity to the third year.
Bluegill attain a length of up to 12 inches and weigh up to 2 pounds, but most
bluegill caught by anglers seldom exceed 8 inches.
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Many Sunfish fishermen go for bluegill or pumpkinseed.
You will find sunfish fishing tips here. Many people know
how to catch a Sunfish, but there is more to learn.
Use a Sunfish recipe from this site for a delicious meal of fish.
Whether you are in the states of Alaska, Delaware, Maine,
Massachusetts, New York, Washington, Oregon, Idaho, Montana, Minnesota,
Wisconsin, North Dakota, South Dakota, Wyoming, Iowa, Michigan, Illinois, Ohio,
Pennsylvania, Missouri, Kentucky, Colorado, Indiana, Virginia, California,
Nevada, Texas, Oklahoma, or New Jersey, there are fish to catch. Most all states
have sunfish or bream. If you are in one of the Canadian
provinces of Ontario, Yukon, Northwest Territories, British Columbia, Alberta,
Saskatchewan, Manitoba, or Quebec, there are fish to catch. You might be
trolling with cranks as your lure of choice. You might be jigging with jigs.
You will probably need rods, reels, some live bait (crawlers, minnows, leeches),
sinkers, leaders, and fishing line. More often times than not, it takes a boat
to get to those spots, as well. Maybe you will be fishing from the bank or
wading, however. You may need fishing reports or maybe even a fishing guide.
This website will try to help you achieve the goal of catching bigger, better,
and more numerous fish.